(2) tailed frog, Ascaphus truei
Kind of a trick question in amphibian identification: a tailed frog incomplete metamorph. The keeled upper tail is the last bit of tadpole body plan left over from metamorphosis, and the pink nub growing out of the ventral surface looks to be the actual “tail” for which the tailed frog is named (functionally, it’s a penis). Or maybe it’s a female and has no tail at all and that’s just some funky nub of tissue that I don’t recognize. Either way: vertical pupils+wide outer hind toe+found it right off the Middle Fork Snoqualmie River = tailed frog.
It’s a cool species. Tailed frog tadpoles take 2-4 years to metamorphose, and 7-8 years to develop to sexual maturity. For a 2-inch-long frog living in cold rivers scoured by annual floods, that is a seriously long life cycle. And somehow it’s been working for a very long time: tailed frogs have a couple of unique features that suggest they have no close relatives anywhere in frogdom. They’re the only frog with an intromittent sexual organ, they have free ribs, and they have an extra vertebrae relative to nearly all other frogs. All that, plus the genetics, points to these frogs having split off from the rest of Anura hundreds of millions of years ago.
Bonus free lit: This is a nice paper on the phylogeography of the newly recognized inland and coast species.